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You are here: Home Research Activities Stars, Stellar Populations and Interstellar Medium Regions of star formation, star clusters and young stars

Regions of star formation, star clusters and young stars

Today, the projects underway in this branch of astrophysics are mainly directed to the study of very young stars in regions of star formation close to the Sun. These allow the physical mechanisms at work in the early phases of stellar evolution to be understood, from the proto-stellar nuclei to the ignition of nuclear fusion within the stars. The observations and the comparison of the properties of young stars at various distances within our galaxy, or nearby galaxies, allows us to understand the environmental effects on both single stars and the global properties, such as the initial mass function, which is one of the fundamental parameters in the study of stellar evolution. From the determination of the properties of individual young stars it is possible to understand the much more violent phenomena observed in external galaxies.

The study of the evolution of the circumstellar disks of young stars is important for the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions necessary for the formation of planetary systems, their evolution and their characteristics.

Ultimately, regions of star formation and open clusters provide natural laboratories for the study of the stars, allowing the determination of certain fundamental parameters such as the distance, age and chemical composition, so that the role of other factors, such as the mass and rotation, can be understood.

The study of young stars is necessarily multi-band: the various components of a young stellar system are evident in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (particularly the infrared, visible and X-rays). As a consequence, both ground based and space facilities of various sizes are used, depending on the scientific goal. For example, medium sized ground-based telescopes are ideal for photometric monitoring and the observation of bright stars, while the larger telescopes allow fainter stars and brown dwarfs to be observed. Of the telescopes used we highlight the use of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) in the Canaries, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at La Silla in Chile, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the GranTeCan that has only just become available to the scientific community. Similarly, extensive use is made of infrared and X-ray space telescopes (Spitzer, HST, CoRot, Chandra, XMM/Newton, Herschel).

Another aspect is the the study of so-called YSOs (Young Stellar Objects), that is, stars in their very first evolutionary phases, in various regions of star formation and environments. Italian researchers are heavily involved as principal investigators (PI) in observations to determine certain properties of these YSOs.

Many young stars show the phenomenon of material jets, and the study of their physical, chemical and kinematic properties is another important field of study where Italian INAF researchers have taken a leadership role. This has been both in the development of diagnostic methods based on optical and infrared spectral lines and in observations using the latest generation of instruments, such as integral field spectrographs and the detectors on board the HST. Some of these material jets emit in the X-ray band, and a numerical model is currently under development to explain this emission.

Lastly, the study of more distant regions continues via the study of a large number of hot, massive stars, that can influence the formation and evolution of new stars.

INAF hosts the preliminary round to set up the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory-ERIC

Feb 14, 2018

INAF hosts the preliminary round to set up  the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory-ERIC At Headquarters of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics INAF, the kick-off round of the multilateral negotiations to establish an ERIC organization to the manage the Cherenkov Telescope Array project as part of the EU’s ESFRI infrastructure roadmap had take place

Extrasolar planets: Italy to lead the construction of the SHARK instruments on the LBT

Jan 24, 2018

Extrasolar planets: Italy to lead the construction of the SHARK instruments on the LBT The Italian institutes involved in the construction of SHARK are the INAF Observatories of Padua and Rome, responsible for the two channels, together with the Observatories of Arcetri, Milan and Trieste and the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of Padua

INAF researcher wins a Consolidator Grant 2017

Dec 20, 2017

INAF researcher wins a Consolidator Grant 2017 Two black hole systems are the investigational topic of DEMOBLACK: one of the projects that have been granted the European Consolidator Grant, which was submitted by Michela Mapelli, a researcher of the National Institute for Astrophysics-INAF and Professor at the University of Innsbruck in Austria